Masjid Gedhe Mataram, Kotagede (Yogyakarta)

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Oleh A Ginanjar Sya’ban

Salah satu bangunan yang masih tersisa dari masa Kesultanan Mataram Islam (1588–1681 M).

Didirikan oleh penguasa pertama Kesultanan Mataram Islam, yaitu Panembahan Senapati (ing Alaga Sayyidin Panatagama Khalifatullah kang Jumeneng ing Tanah Jawa) sekitar tahun 1589. Sang Panembahan sendiri wafat pada tahun 1601.

 

Pembangunan dan pengembangan masjid terus dilanjutkan hingga mencapai puncaknya pada masa pemerintahan sang cucu panembahan, yaitu Sultan Abdullah Muhammad Maulana Mataram Hanyakrakusuma (Sultan Agung, m. 1613–1645), sultan terbesar Mataram Islam.

Corak arsitektur masjid ini memadukan unsur budaya Jawa Kuna (Hindu-Budha) dan Islam. Menengok masa awal pembangunan masjid ini di masa Panembahan Senapati (1589), usianya terpaut sekitar empat puluh tahun dengan Masjid Kudus yang didirikan oleh Syaikh Ja’far Shadiq al-Jawi (Sunan Kudus) pada tahun 1549 M. Karena itu tidaklah mengherankan jika corak gapura luar Masjid Gedhe Mataram sangat mirip dengan garupa Masjid Kudus. Hanya saja bedanya, di Masjid Gedhe Mataram tidak terdapat menara khas sebagaimana menara Masjid Kudus.

Pada pintu masuk utama bagian dalam masjid, terdapat inskripsi penanda proses perehaban masjid di abad ke-13 Hijri (19 Masehi). Inskripsi tersebut ditulis dalam bahasa Arab dan Jawa, diukir di atas selempeng kayu dan ditempatkan tepat di atas daun pintu. Inskripsi tersebut berbunyi sebagai berikut:

هذا الباب المسجد الحرام في التاريخ (؟) الكعبة تبع البلاد الأكبر سوركرت أدينعرة # هجرة النبي صم من مكة الى المدينة ألف ومئتين وأربع وثمنون سنة

(Ini adalah pintu Masjidil Haram pada tarikh (?) Ka’bah yang ikut pada [wilayah kekuasaan] Negara Besar Surakarta Adiningrat # Hijrah Nabi SAW dari Makkah ke Madinah tahun Seribu Dua Ratus Delapan Puluh Empat)

Ketika dikonversi ke penanggalan Gregorian, tahun 1284 Hijri yang termaktub dalam inskripsi di atas adalah 1867 Masehi.

Yang menarik bagi saya adalah keterangan nama “Surakarta Hadiningrat” yang tercantum pada inskripsi di atas sebagai “penguasa yang membawahi dan melakukan pembaharuan terhadap Masjid Gedhe Mataram”.

Bagaimana ini bisa terjadi? Masjid Gedhe Mataram terletak di Kotagede Yogyakarta, tetapi inskripsi tersebut menerangkan kalau masjid tersebut (dan Kotagede) di bawah kekuasaan Surakarta?

Begini rupanya jalan ceritanya:

Kesultanan Mataram resmi “bubar” dan terpecah menjadi dua pasca Perjanjian Giyanti pada tahun 1755. Pada saat itu, ibukota Mataram tidak lagi di Kotagede, tetapi sudah dipindah ke Kartasura (pada masa Amangkurat II, m. 1677-1703). Wilayah Mataram pasca Perjanjian Giyanti pun dipecah menjadi dua, yaitu Kasunanan Surakarta (penguasanya bergelar Sunan Pakubuwana) dan Kesultanan Yogyakarta (penguasanya bergelar Sultan Hamengkubuwana).

Sebelum tahun 1952, Kotagede secara geografis memang terdapat di Yogyakarta, namun ternyata secara administratif berada di bawah kekuasaan Kasunanan Surakarta yang cukup jauh dari Yogyakarta. Hal ini karena menurut Perjanjian Giyanti, Sunan Pakubuwana III yang dinobatkan sebagai penguasa Surakarta saat itu, dinyatakan sebagai “pewaris takhta Kesultanan Mataram Islam”, dan wilayah Kotagede berada di bawah kekuasaan Surakarta, bukan Yogyakarta.

Wallahu A’lam
Yogyakarta, Rabi’ul Awwal 1440 H/ November 2018

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