Menuntaskan Kajian Kompilasi Hukum Islam yang Menggunakan Adat sebagai Pedoman


Oleh : Ah. Khoirul Anam*

Kajian Islam Nusantara itu lebih banyak bersentuhan dengan persoalan adat dan tradisi. Sesungguhnya berbicara Islam Nusantara, adalah berbicara tentang adat istiadat kaum muslimin di Nusantara.

Susah menemukan karya-karya fiqih ulama Nusantara yang menjadikan adat sebagai sumber hukumnya. Karena sebagian karya-karya fiqih ulama Nusantara di tulis di Timur Tengah. Ini menjadi kajian menarik.

Sementara kompilasi hukum Islam, meskipun bisa kita katakan sebagai hasil ijtihad ulama Nusantara yang berdasarkan adat istiadat kita, ini masih problematik. Karena sebagian umat Islam, bahkan di lingkungan pengadilan agama pun masih ragu memakai kompilasi hukum Islam sebagai sumber hukum. Sebagian masih suka memakai fiqih-fiqih klasik yang ditulis ratusan tahun lalu itu, artinya itu ada problem.

Saya bertemu Ketua Majlis Permusyawaratan Ulama (MPU) Aceh, Prof. Muslim Ibrahim. Beliau mengatakan mestinya kompilasi hukum islam itu, detailnya, wasiat wajibat, harta gono gini, dan kekhasan hukum Islam lainya, mestinya aspek fiqihnya digali lagi.

Kompilasi hukum Islam munculnya banyak sekali karena faktor politik, sehingga kajian Fiqihnya tidak tuntas. Mestinya kita tuntaskan. Sehingga tidak hanya menjadi produk, tapi argumentasi fiqhiyyahnya kuat sehingga bisa memanfaatkannya.

Sekarang terjadi gab, yang dipake di pengadilan agama, kompilasi hukum islamnya sangat maju, sementara fiqihnya ini kembali ke karya-karya lama yang dipakai di Pesantren. Ada gab di sini, mestinya gab ini dijembatani oleh perguruan tinggi.

Dalam sejarahnya, kompilasi hukum Islam ini mampir, karena konsepnya dari Mahkamah Agung. Waktu itu hakim muda yang khusus membidangi hukum agama, bernama Prof. Bustanul Arifin. Beliau sempat bercerita, bahwa sebelum kompilasi hukum Islam ini diketok palu, ditetapkan di dalam Impres Presiden Soeharto 1992, sempat dibawa ke Permusyawaratan NU. “Jadi semacam barter, tapi ada unsur politiknya.”

Pak Bustanul Arifin bersedia mendatangkan Pak Soeharto, dengan catatan hukum Islamnya dibahas. Sebelum dibahas, dibawa Gus Dur ke KH Ahmad Shiddiq. Kemudian dibahas di Situbondo dan Muktamar di tempat yang sama.

Tapi kompilasi hukum Islam yang menggunakan adat ini kajiannya belum tuntas. Sehingga masih banyak, jangankan diantara ulama pesantren, di lingkungan pengadilan agama saja, saya membaca riset, di Gorontalo, di Makassar, itu banyak pengadilan agama, hakim – hakim itu masih ragu memakai kompilasi hukum Islam sebagai dasar. Karena kajian-kajian fiqihnya tidak tuntas.

Kajian-kajian kita ini saya kira dalam rangka untuk menjembatani. Karena banyak dari kita alumni pesantren dan juga aktif di perguruan tinggi. Bagaimana kita bisa menjembatani perdebatan yang belum tuntas itu.

Sehingga kompilasi hukum Islam yang menurut saya sebuah terobosan fiqih yang luar biasa, yang berpedoman adat ini, bisa meyakinkan, bisa menjadi rujukan bagi para kiai, terutama bagi pengadilan terutama di dalam memutuskan perkara hukum agama.

*Disampaikan dalam Kajian Fiqih Ulama Nusantara.
INC, Sabtu 22 Januari 2019.


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