Fatwa “Talqin Mayyit” di Majalah “al-Huda” (Batavia) untuk Soalan dari Bandung

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Oleh: Alfaqir A. Ginanjar Sya’ban

Berikut ini adalah teks soalan fatwa dan jawabannya yang termuat dalam rubrik “Neraca Ahlussunnah wal Jama’ah” majalah bulanan “al-Huda”, edisi bulan Zulkaedah 1349 Hijri (bertepatan dengan Maret 1931).

Soalan tersebut datang dari seorang bernama Tuan Abdullah Ahmad di Bandung. Dalam soalan tersebut, Tuan Abdullah Ahmad menanyakan perihal hukum “talqin mayyit”, apakah ia hukumnya sunnah, mubah, makruh, atau justru haram.

Tertulis di sana:

سؤال داري توان عبد الله أحمد بندوغ. بكيمانكه حكمث تلقين ميت؟ سنة كه، أتو بدعة أتو مباح، أتو حرام؟

(Soal dari Tuan Abdullah Ahmad Bandung. Bagaimanakah hukumnya talqin mayyit? Sunnah kah, atau bid’ah, atau mubah, atau haram?)

Menjawab soalan dari Bandung tersebut, redaksi majalah al-Huda mengatakan bahwa hukum “talqin mayyit” adalah “sunnah muttaba’ah”. Redaksi juga mengatakan, bahwa permasalahan hukum “talqin mayyit” pada masa itu sedang menjadi salah satu “trending topic” isu keislaman yang menghangat di Hindia Belanda (Indonesia). Terjadi perdebatan yang cukup sengit antara kelompok tradisionalis yang mengamalkan tradisi “talqin mayyit” dengan kelompok puritan yang membid’ahkan tradisi tersebut, juga beberapa tradisi dan amaliah muslim Nusantara lainnya semisal ziarah kubur, maulidan, bershalawat dengan menggunakan kata “sayyidinâ”, dan lain sebagainya.

Masih terkait polemik wacana “talqin mayyit” ini, Sayyid Yahya b. Usman b. Yahya dari majalah al-Huda telah menyusun sebuah kitab berjudul “Ghâyah al-Tabyîn li Adillah al-Talqîn” dan sedang dalam proses percetakan.

Redaksi majalah “al-Huda” menulis:

جواب كيتا. اللهم هداية للصواب. حكمث تلقين ميت ايت سنة متبعة. اواس، اواس، اواس سودار2. مغيغت، بهوا سؤال تلقين سكارغ سوده منجديكن كاجوث دنيا إسلام دإندونيسيا، مك كيت دري الهدى سوده امبيل كفوتوسن اكن تربيتكن كتاب نماث “غاية التبيين لأدلة التلقين”. دالم كتاب ايت اكن كيت كموكاكن نص-نص يغ كوت تنتغ سنة متبعهث تلقين ميت. هركاث كورغ لبه 0.50 () لائن اوغكوس كيريم. كتاب ايت سكارغ سداغ دجيتك

(Jawab kita. Semoga Allah senantiasa menunjukkan kita kepada kebenaran. Hukum talqin mayyit itu sunnah muttaba’ah. Awas,awas, awas saudara-saudara. Mengingat bahwa [per]soal[an] talqin sekarang sudah menjadikan kacaunya dunia Islam di Indonesia, maka kita dari al-Huda sudah ambil keputusan akan terbitkan kitab namanya “Ghâyah al-Tabyîn li Adillah al-Talqîn”. Dalam kitab itu akan kita kemukakan nash-nash [dalil-dalil] yang kuat tentang sunnah muttaba’ah-nya talqin mayyit. Harganya kurang lebih 0.50 f (gulden) lain ongkos kirim. Kitab itu sekarang sedang dicetak)

Di masa yang bersamaan, juga terkait polemik hukum “talqin mayyit” ini, KH. Ahmad Sanusi, seorang ulama besar Sunda asal Sukabumi yang pada masa itu tengah menjadi tahanan pihak kolonial Hindia Belanda di Tanah Tinggi, Batavia, juga menulis sebuah karangan. Kitab karya KH. Ahmad Sanusi Sukabumi itu berjudul “Tadzkirah al-Thâlibîn fî Sunniyyah al-Talqîn” dan berisi argumen yang menjelaskan jika hukum “talqin mayyit” adalah “sunnah muttaba’ah”. Kitab karya KH. Ahmad Sanusi Sukabumi itu diterbitkan oleh Percetakan al-Ikhtiyar yang beralamat di Gang Kepatihan, Buitenzorg (Bogor).

Selain soalan tentang masalah “taqin mayyit”, dalam majalah “al-Huda” edisi tersebut di atas juga memuat beberapa soalan-soalan lainnya yang datang dari pelbagai penjuru Hindia Belanda, semisal soalan “bagaimana status negara Turki masa Musthafa Kemal Ataturk, apakah ia masih sebagai negara Islam atau bukan” (soalan Tuan Zainuddin dari Tanjung Balai, Kesultanan Asahan), atau soalan “bagaimana hukum zakat fitrah dari seorang anak angkat yang belum cukup umur bagi orang tua angkatnya” (soalan Sayyid Hasyim b. Husain Maula Khilah dari Mentok, Bangka), juga soalan “berapakah jumlah raka’at shalat tarawih yang benar” (soalan Tuan Sanusi dari Cibinong, Bogor), dan lain-lain.

“al-Huda” adalah sebuah majalah berbahasa Melayu aksara Arab (Jawi) yang diterbitkan oleh komunitas Arab di Batavia pada paruh pertama abad XX (edisi pertamanya terbit pada 5 November 1930). Inisiatornya adalah Sayyid Yahya b. Usman b. Yahya, seorang ulama Arab Batavia yang memiliki sebuah percetakan besar di kawasan Tanah Abang pada masanya. Beliau juga terhitung sebagai putra dari Sayyid Usman b. Yahya (w. 1913) yang sebelumnya menjabat sebagai mufti Batavia. Adapun pemimpin redaksi majalah “al-Huda” adalah Ibnu Syuhada Musa al-Mahfuzh.

Wallahu A’lam
Bandung, Muharram 1441 H/ September 2019 M
Alfaqir A. Ginanjar Sya’ban

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