Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan (w. 1954): Qadhi Campalagian (Mandar) Kawan KH. Wahhab Hasbullah

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Oleh : Alfaqir A. Ginanjar Sya’ban

Jum’at (2/8) kemarin, saya berkesempatan untuk minziarahi makam Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan di Campalagian, Sulawesi Barat, bersama Dr. Muhammad Zain (Kapus LKKMO Kemenag RI), Dr. Zainul Milal Bizawie (penulis dan sejarawan santri), Dr. Asro’i, KH. Abdul Waris Zain (cucu Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan), dan kawan-kawan komunitas pecinta “Turats Ulama Mandar”

Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan (1886–1954, usia 68 tahun) terhitung sebagai sosok ulama besar yang memiliki peran sentral di kawasan Tanah Mandar (Sulawesi Barat). Beliau yang dikenal dengan nama “Annangguru Maddapungan” dan “Puang Panrita”, disebut sebagai “Syaikh Masyayikh Mandar” dan pernah menjabat sebagai qadhi Campalagian sepanjang tahun 1948-1954.

Menariknya, sosok Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan ini terhubung dan terkoneksi dengan KH. Abdul Wahhab Hasbullah (1888–1971, usia 83 tahun) dalam sanad keilmuan dan jaringan intelektualnya. Keduanya pernah sama-sama bertemu di Makkah al-Mukrramah dan belajar di satu majlis pengajian yang diampu oleh Syaikh Sa’id al-Yamani (ulama besar madzhab Syafi’i dan imam Masjidil Haram, w. 1935) pada periode awal abad ke-20 M.

Saya memperkirakan jika di Makkah Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan juga belajar kepada beberapa maha guru ulama Nusantara yang mengajar di Masjidil Haram pada periode dekade pertama abad ke-20 M, seperti Syaikh Mahfuzh Tremas (w. 1920), Syaikh Ahmad Khatib Minangkabau (w. 1916), Syaikh Mukhtar Bogor (w. 1930), Syaikh Abdul Hamid Kudus (w. 1917), Syaikh Ahmad Nahrawi Banyumas (w. 1927), dan lain-lain.

KH. Wahab Hasbullah pulang ke Jawa sekitar tahun 1914, sementara Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan pulang ke Sulawesi pada sekitar tahun 1913. Keduanya pulang dari Makkah pada waktu yang hampir bersamaan, seiring dengan meletusnya kecamuk perang dunia pertama.

Setelah pulang ke Tanah Mandar, Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan lalu menikah dengan putri Syaikh Abdul Hamid, ulama besar dan qadhi Campalagian periode 1895-1948. Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan pun menetap di Campalagian dan mengasuh majlis keilmuan di masjid raya Campalagian yang ramai didatangi oleh ratusan murid dari berbagai pelosok Tanah Mandar.

Menariknya, Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan melestarikan dan mewariskan tradisi pengajian kitab kuning sistem klasikal, yang di Jawa dikenal dengan istilah “bandongan” dan “sorogan”, lengkap dengan interpretasi interlinear menggunakan bahasa Mandar (di Jawa dikenal dengan istilah “maknani gandul”). Oleh masyarakat Mandar, tradisi pengajian kitab kuning ini disebut “manggaji kitta”.

Kedekatan hubungan antara Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan dan KH. Wahab Hasbullah ini juga kembali terlihat pada masa huru hara gerombolan Wahhabi yang menduduki Hijaz, termasuk kota suci Makkah pada Desember tahun 1925. Pada masa itu, banyak ulama Makkah yang pergi eksil ke luar Hijaz untuk menyelamatkan diri, di antaranya adalah Syaikh Sa’id Yamani dan anak-anaknya, yaitu Syaikh Shalih Yamani, Syaikh Hasan Yamani, dan Syaikh Muhammad Ali Yamani. Mereka pergi mengungsi ke Nusantara.

Syaikh Sa’id Yamani dan anak-anaknya tercatat pernah singgah di Jawa Timur dan disambut oleh Hadratus Syaikh KH. Hasyim Asy’ari, KH. Wahab Hasbullah, KH. Faqih Maskumambang, beserta ulama-ulama Aswaja Tanah Jawa lainnya. Hal ini sebagaimana terekam dalam pengantar taqrîzh (endorsement) yang diberikan oleh Syaikh Sa’id Yamani pada kitab “Âdâb al-‘Âlim wa al-Muta’allim” karangan Hadratus Syaikh KH. Asy’ari. Keluarga Syaikh Sa’id Yamani dan rombongan ulama Makkah lainnya itu pun singgah selama beberapa masa lamanya di Jawa Timur dan berkeliling pesantren-pesantren asuhan ulama Aswaja Jawa Timur pada masa itu.

Rihlah pengungsian Syaikh Sa’id Yamani dan keluarganya pun sampai ke Mandar. Di Tanah Mandar, mereka singgah di Campalagian, khususnya di rumah Syaikh Abdul Hamid (qadhi Campalagian masa itu), Syaikh Arsyad Campalagian (murid langsung Syaikh Sa’id Yamani dan juga menantu Syaikh Abdul Hamid qadhi Campalagian yang sudah menjadi ulama terpandang di Mandar), juga Sayyid Hasan al-Mahdali (putrinya, Munawwarah, menikah dengan Syaikh Hasan Yamani, anak Syaikh Sa’id Yamani). Di masjid raya Campalagian, Syaikh Sa’id Yamani pun sempat mengajar ilmu-ilmu keislaman selama beberapa masa lamanya.

Dalam perjalanannya di kemudian hari, kawasan Campalagian ini tidak hanya menyandang julukan “kiblat ilmu pengetahuan Islam di Tanah Mandar”, tetapi juga menjadi basis perkembangan organisasi Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) sekaligus jantung pertahanan tradisi dan ideologi Aswaja di kawasan itu. Kenyataan ini kian diperkuat dengan keberadaan Syaikh Muhammad Thahir (Imam Lapeo, w. 1952), seorang ulama sufi besar Tanah Mandar yang juga hidup satu zaman dengan Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan dan Hadratus Syaikh KH. Hasyim Asy’ari.

Makam Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan berada di belakang rumahya yang tak jauh dari kawasan masjid raya Campalagian. Rumah kuno berarsitektur panggung khas Mandar tersebut kini dihuni oleh salah satu cucunya dari jalur putrinya, yaitu KH. Abdul Waris Zain (saat ini berusia lebih dari 70 tahun). Salah satu putri dari Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan, yaitu Muhaebah, dinikahkan dengan muridnya, yaitu KH. Muhammad Zain (w. 1987), yang di kemudian hari menggantikan posisi Syaikh Arsyad Maddapungan sebagai qadhi Campalagian (menjabat sepanjang tahun 1954-1987).

لهم الفاتحة

Polewali Mandar—Bogor, Zulhijjah 1440 Hijri/ Agustus 2018 Masehi
Alfaqir A. Ginanjar Sya’ban

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